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Types of glass and the production process

  • Author:Clarence
  • Release Date:2014-07-09
Float glass / annealed glass
Old leather flat glass is rarely full. About 90 percent of the world's flat glass are using "float glass" in the 1950s by Sir 阿士达 Pilkington Pilkington Glass Company (Pilkington) the invention is made. This glass also known as annealing glass, the solution is poured into the glass cylinder in a dissolved tin, naturally after a smooth surface on both sides of the tin float glass surface, the strip is slowly cooled and left to grow tin cylinder. After the fire has become nearly completely flat polished glass. Typically the thickness of the glass in standard production, divided 2,3,4,5,6,8,10,12,15,19 and 22 mm.
The ordinary annealed glass used in the building would constitute a potential danger, because when the glass broken, it will become a large, sharp fragments can cause serious personal injury or death. Most local building codes prohibit the use of ordinary annealed glass may be broken glass in place. For example: bathroom, glass doors, floor-to-ceiling windows, fire escapes, etc., can not use this glass.
Before the invention of float glass, annealed glass will also blow, rolled production. These methods are difficult to be made whole flat glass, unless the high cost of machinery to be polished.
Tempered Glass
Tempered glass, tempered glass or tempered glass (Tempered Glass) is made from annealed glass, heat-treated. Annealed glass is first cut to the desired size, or grind the edge of the hole drilled, and performs enhancement processing. Glass cylinder was placed on the table, pushed into the annealing temperature exceeds 600 degrees Celsius oven, and then rapidly cooled in air. Glass surface is cooled to a temperature below the annealing, rapid hardening and shrinkage; while still inside the glass for a short time in the flow. When the internal glass contraction will cause stress on the surface, inside the glass into a tensile stress.
Tempered glass is generally four to six times stronger than annealed glass. The reason is that minor cracks glass surface stress will be pressed, and the possibility of cracks in the inner layer may also be lower. However, there are disadvantages of tempered glass. Because of the need to balance the stress within the glass, so if any damage or cracks appear on the reinforced glass, fingernail-sized piece of glass will be broken into, no debris sharp corners. Therefore, glass reinforced pre-treatment prior to performing cutting and polishing. And compared with annealed glass, tempered glass, low hardness, more likely to be scratched.
Tempered glass in architecture uses many, many components such as frameless glass doors, glass curtain field so often used to strengthen the broken glass. The glass will need to load using tempered glass.
Fragments of small and rounded, while tempered glass fragments formed fewer opportunities for people injured. Therefore be regarded as one of safety glass. But tempered glass when subjected to shock may suddenly burst characteristics make glass inappropriate in some situations.
Strengthening only after the formation of small particles of glass was shattered, but not sharp chunks of debris. Tempered glass has been found in hundreds of years ago, but did not know its principles. When the seventeenth century, Britain's Prince Rupert to cause the melting of glass beads glass droplets water. This teardrop-shaped glass is very hard, even if it is not broken beat with hammer. But as long as the tail break the glass drops, it will suddenly Decrepitation into powder. This stuff was also brought on-court, to tease people, known as "Rupert droplets" (Rupert's drop). Rupert droplets produced and explosion videos
Laminated Glass
Laminated glass is 1903 by the French chemist Edward Benedict Waters (Edouard Benedictus) invention. He has no intention of celluloid covered with a layer of nitrification (Cellulose nitrate) when doing experiments in glass bottles, glass bottles found after cracking down on the ground without breaking. He wants to have plastic laminated glass in the windshield of the car, in order to reduce casualties caused by car accidents. Initially automobile production is not interested in his invention, the first use of this invention, but is produced when the First World War gas masks. 1936 Improved use of polyvinyl butyral (Polyvinvl butyral PVB) as the interlayer, laminated glass was popular in the car, even after the government became mandatory safety standards.
Modern ordinary laminated glass is two or more layers, resulting annealed glass, laminated still most intermediate PVB. The PVB is placed between two layers of glass, heated to about 70 degrees Celsius, and then roll out to the middle of the air pressure, so that the two layers of glass PVB tightly stuck together. The laminated glass is generally 3 mm glass layers sandwiching the interlayer of 0.38 mm. The total thickness of 6.38 mm. More layers can also be used, thicker glass to increase the strength. Such as bulletproof glass that is multi-layered thick glass clip into a total thickness of up to 50 mm.
When the glass is broken laminated glass, laminated glass adhesive layers will still avoid wounding piece of glass can be broken into pieces. Glass clip was also known as safety glass.
Sound effects PVB laminated glass in the middle of the glass layer also contributed to the increase, and can block more than 99 percent of UV rays.
Car windshield is laminated glass. But most of the other vehicle glass, such as side and rear glass is tempered glass. If you look carefully, you will find the car's windshield cracked only after the case of a collision without breaking. Other glass is broken into pellets.
Self-cleaning glass
This is a new technology of glass from the Pilkington invented, mainly used in buildings, cars. The outer surface of the glass coated with approximately 50 nm thick titanium oxide in the catalytic decomposition of organic matter under ultraviolet light on the glass. Additionally, when the hydrophilic surface of the glass to assist rain water film is formed on the glass layer, the decomposition of organic matter can be washed away without leaving traces of water, to achieve self-cleaning effect.
Glass, glass, also known in ancient China, is a transparent, high strength and hardness, smooth and impervious surface materials. Glass is chemically inert to almost completely, and will not work with biological and therefore very versatile. However, the disadvantage of glass is also easily broken into sharp pieces, but this disadvantage can be by adding other materials, or to heat treatment improvements. Glass is an amorphous solid. The glass was dissolved rapidly cooled, because there is not enough time to the formation of molecular crystals to form a glass. For example, if the original is to heat the sugar crystals dissolve, then poured onto the frozen surface, the candy is produced as an amorphous solid.
Ordinary glass is mainly amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is quartz, sand or chemical composition. Melting point of pure silica 2000 degrees Celsius. So when the two materials are generally added to the manufacture of glass: soda (Sodium Carbonate, Na2CO3, namely baking soda) and potassium carbonate (Potash, potash). Such silica dissolved points to around 1000 degrees. However, because the sodium carbonate dissolved in water will make the glass, it is often also added an appropriate amount of calcium oxide CaO, the glass does not dissolve in water.
Transparent to visible light is the biggest feature of the glass. Because the manufacture of glass generally added to the sodium carbonate, so the wavelengths shorter than 400 nm ultraviolet light is not transparent. 若果 let UV penetration, the glass must be manufactured with pure silica. This high cost of glass, quartz glass is generally known. Pure glass is transparent to infrared also can cause several kilometers long, glass fiber for communication purposes.
Common glass is usually also add other ingredients. For example, looks very eye blinking Yao crystal glass (Lead glass), is added to the lead in the glass, so the glass refractive index increases, resulting in a more dazzling refraction. As Pyrex glass (Pyrex), boron is added to change the thermal and electrical properties of the glass. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Manufacture of optical glass lens is added to a substantial increase in thorium oxide refractive index. If you want the glass to absorb infrared light, can be added to the iron. For example, the projector will have this insulated glass. Cerium is added to absorb UV glass.
The addition of various metals and metal oxides in the glass can also change the color of the glass. For example, a small amount of manganese can change a light green glass caused by internal iron. Manganese can cause a little more lavender glass. Selenium has a similar effect. Can cause a small amount of cobalt blue glass. Arsenic oxide and tin oxide can cause opaque white glass. This seems to be a white glass ceramics. Copper oxide can cause blue-green glass. Copper will result in dark red, opaque glass that looks like a ruby. Nickel can cause blue, purple and even black glass. Titanium can cause brown. Trace amounts of gold (approximately 0.001%) caused the glass is very clear, like a ruby color. Glass uranium (0.1 to 2%) is caused by the yellow or green firefly. Silver compounds can cause orange to yellow glass. Change in temperature will change the color of the glass caused by these compounds, but the chemistry among the very complex, is still not completely clear solution.
Sometimes there will be a natural volcanic lava in glass, called obsidian or volcanic glass. Obsidian knife can be used to create simple.
I believe since the Stone Age humans already use natural volcanic glass. Ancient Egypt in the second millennium BC has been documented about the use of glass as a vessel. 200 BC, Babylon invented a method of glass blowing glass from the control, then this method is passed to Rome, in Europe around the first century AD Roman Portland glass bottle that is embossed works. To the eleventh century, the German invention of flat glass manufacturing technology. First blown glass spherical, cylindrical and cause. Cut glass is still hot, then flatten. This technique thirteenth century in Venice has been further improved. Glass manufacturing center in Europe is the fourteenth century Venice, caused a lot of glass tableware, utensils, etc. are produced by Venice. Many future European glass artisans are modeled after Venice. Glass embossing machine 1827 invention, to carry out a large-scale production of cheap glassware road.
Sometimes the glass with acid or other corrosive materials engraved artwork. The traditional law-making is blown or cast glass, carved by craftsmen for the time. Later, the present invention can be carved with a way in the mold 1920, also possible to use different colors of glass, then in 1930, after the mass production of cheap glassware gradually appear.
China has also started manufacturing in the Western Zhou Dynasty glass. In the Western Zhou Dynasty tombs have been found in glass, glass beads and other items. Northern ago, Chinese and many more known to fire into the glass, glassy transparent material. Song starts called glass. To the Ming and Qing Dynasties, accustomed to low-temperature firing glass called opaque ceramics. A lot of the time, "glass" strictly speaking, does not belong to the modern call "glass."
Glass Products
Strength and chemical inertia makes it a very useful glass material. Many household items, such as cups, dishes, bottles, etc. are made of glass. In addition, light bulbs, mirrors, computer monitors (CRT), TV, windows, etc. need to use glass. Most of the laboratory glass ware is also caused, and most are relatively high temperature, and the expansion less Pyrex glass. For demanding applications, but also spend quartz glass. Good quality watch will spend the surface of quartz glass. As for optical equipment, is inseparable from the glass-made lens